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Developed at the University of Manchester in England, the Williams tube provided the medium on which the first electronically stored program was implemented in the Manchester Baby computer, which first successfully ran a program on 21 June Magnetic-core memory was invented in and developed up until the mids. It became a widespread form of random-access memory, relying on an array of magnetized rings. By changing the sense of each ring's magnetization, data could be stored with one bit stored per ring.

Since every ring had a combination of address wires to select and read or write it, access to any memory location in any sequence was possible. Magnetic core memory was the standard form of computer memory system until displaced by solid-state MOS metal—oxide—silicon semiconductor memory in integrated circuits ICs during the early s.

Prior to the development of integrated read-only memory ROM circuits, permanent or read-only random-access memory was often constructed using diode matrices driven by address decoders , or specially wound core rope memory planes. Semiconductor memory began in the s with bipolar memory, which used bipolar transistors. While it improved performance, it could not compete with the lower price of magnetic core memory. Norman at Fairchild Semiconductor in Dynamic random-access memory DRAM allowed replacement of a 4 or 6-transistor latch circuit by a single transistor for each memory bit, greatly increasing memory density at the cost of volatility.

Data was stored in the tiny capacitance of each transistor, and had to be periodically refreshed every few milliseconds before the charge could leak away. Toshiba 's Toscal BC electronic calculator , which was introduced in , [15] [16] [17] used a form of capacitive bipolar DRAM, storing bit data on discrete memory cells , consisting of germanium bipolar transistors and capacitors.

In , Dr. Robert H. While examining the characteristics of MOS technology, he found it was capable of building capacitors , and that storing a charge or no charge on the MOS capacitor could represent the 1 and 0 of a bit, while the MOS transistor could control writing the charge to the capacitor. This led to his development of a single-transistor DRAM memory cell. The capacitor holds a high or low charge 1 or 0, respectively , and the transistor acts as a switch that lets the control circuitry on the chip read the capacitor's state of charge or change it.

As this form of memory is less expensive to produce than static RAM, it is the predominant form of computer memory used in modern computers. Both static and dynamic RAM are considered volatile , as their state is lost or reset when power is removed from the system. By contrast, read-only memory ROM stores data by permanently enabling or disabling selected transistors, such that the memory cannot be altered.

These persistent forms of semiconductor ROM include USB flash drives, memory cards for cameras and portable devices, and solid-state drives. The memory cell is the fundamental building block of computer memory. The memory cell is an electronic circuit that stores one bit of binary information and it must be set to store a logic 1 high voltage level and reset to store a logic 0 low voltage level. The value in the memory cell can be accessed by reading it. This means that SRAM requires very low power when not being accessed, but it is expensive and has low storage density.

A second type, DRAM, is based around a capacitor. Charging and discharging this capacitor can store a "1" or a "0" in the cell. However, the charge in this capacitor slowly leaks away, and must be refreshed periodically. To be useful, memory cells must be readable and writeable. Within the RAM device, multiplexing and demultiplexing circuitry is used to select memory cells. Typically, a RAM device has a set of address lines A An, and for each combination of bits that may be applied to these lines, a set of memory cells are activated.

Due to this addressing, RAM devices virtually always have a memory capacity that is a power of two. Usually several memory cells share the same address. For example, a 4 bit 'wide' RAM chip has 4 memory cells for each address.

Often the width of the memory and that of the microprocessor are different, for a 32 bit microprocessor, eight 4 bit RAM chips would be needed. Often more addresses are needed than can be provided by a device. In that case, external multiplexors to the device are used to activate the correct device that is being accessed. One can read and over-write data in RAM. Many computer systems have a memory hierarchy consisting of processor registers , on-die SRAM caches, external caches , DRAM , paging systems and virtual memory or swap space on a hard drive.

This entire pool of memory may be referred to as "RAM" by many developers, even though the various subsystems can have very different access times , violating the original concept behind the random access term in RAM. Even within a hierarchy level such as DRAM, the specific row, column, bank, rank , channel, or interleave organization of the components make the access time variable, although not to the extent that access time to rotating storage media or a tape is variable.

The overall goal of using a memory hierarchy is to obtain the highest possible average access performance while minimizing the total cost of the entire memory system generally, the memory hierarchy follows the access time with the fast CPU registers at the top and the slow hard drive at the bottom. In many modern personal computers, the RAM comes in an easily upgraded form of modules called memory modules or DRAM modules about the size of a few sticks of chewing gum.

These can quickly be replaced should they become damaged or when changing needs demand more storage capacity. In addition to serving as temporary storage and working space for the operating system and applications, RAM is used in numerous other ways. Most modern operating systems employ a method of extending RAM capacity, known as "virtual memory".

A portion of the computer's hard drive is set aside for a paging file or a scratch partition , and the combination of physical RAM and the paging file form the system's total memory. When the system runs low on physical memory, it can " swap " portions of RAM to the paging file to make room for new data, as well as to read previously swapped information back into RAM.

Excessive use of this mechanism results in thrashing and generally hampers overall system performance, mainly because hard drives are far slower than RAM. Software can "partition" a portion of a computer's RAM, allowing it to act as a much faster hard drive that is called a RAM disk. A RAM disk loses the stored data when the computer is shut down, unless memory is arranged to have a standby battery source, or changes to the RAM disk are written out to a nonvolatile disk. The ROM chip is then disabled while the initialized memory locations are switched in on the same block of addresses often write-protected.

This process, sometimes called shadowing , is fairly common in both computers and embedded systems. Depending on the system, this may not result in increased performance, and may cause incompatibilities. For example, some hardware may be inaccessible to the operating system if shadow RAM is used.

On some systems the benefit may be hypothetical because the BIOS is not used after booting in favor of direct hardware access. Free memory is reduced by the size of the shadowed ROMs. Several new types of non-volatile RAM , which preserve data while powered down, are under development. The technologies used include carbon nanotubes and approaches utilizing Tunnel magnetoresistance.

There are two 2nd generation techniques currently in development: thermal-assisted switching TAS [28] which is being developed by Crocus Technology , and spin-transfer torque STT on which Crocus , Hynix , IBM , and several other companies are working. Whether some of these technologies can eventually take significant market share from either DRAM, SRAM, or flash-memory technology, however, remains to be seen.

Since , " solid-state drives " based on flash memory with capacities exceeding gigabytes and performance far exceeding traditional disks have become available. This development has started to blur the definition between traditional random-access memory and "disks", dramatically reducing the difference in performance.

Some kinds of random-access memory, such as " EcoRAM ", are specifically designed for server farms , where low power consumption is more important than speed. An important reason for this disparity is the limited communication bandwidth beyond chip boundaries, which is also referred to as bandwidth wall. Given these trends, it was expected that memory latency would become an overwhelming bottleneck in computer performance.

CPU speed improvements slowed significantly partly due to major physical barriers and partly because current CPU designs have already hit the memory wall in some sense. Intel summarized these causes in a document. First of all, as chip geometries shrink and clock frequencies rise, the transistor leakage current increases, leading to excess power consumption and heat Secondly, the advantages of higher clock speeds are in part negated by memory latency, since memory access times have not been able to keep pace with increasing clock frequencies.

Third, for certain applications, traditional serial architectures are becoming less efficient as processors get faster due to the so-called Von Neumann bottleneck , further undercutting any gains that frequency increases might otherwise buy. In addition, partly due to limitations in the means of producing inductance within solid state devices, resistance-capacitance RC delays in signal transmission are growing as feature sizes shrink, imposing an additional bottleneck that frequency increases don't address.

A different concept is the processor-memory performance gap, which can be addressed by 3D integrated circuits that reduce the distance between the logic and memory aspects that are further apart in a 2D chip. Multiple levels of caching have been developed to deal with the widening gap, and the performance of high-speed modern computers relies on evolving caching techniques. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Form of computer data storage. For other uses, see Ram. Not to be confused with Random Access Memories or Random-access machine. Analog recording. In development. Main article: Memory cell computing. Main article: Memory hierarchy. Main article: Virtual memory.

Main article: RAM drive. Part of this section is transcluded from Synchronous dynamic random-access memory. Technology portal. Cambridge English Dictionary. Retrieved 11 July Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary. Ars Technica. Archived from the original on July 8, Archived from the original on Reprinted in The Origins of Digital Computers. IEE , 98 61 : 13—28, doi : Computer History Museum.

Retrieved 19 June The Silicon Engine. Horizon House. Retrieved 10 August Retrieved 20 September Old Calculator Web Museum. Archived from the original on 3 July Retrieved 8 May Encyclopedia Britannica.

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On some systems the benefit may be hypothetical because the BIOS is not used after booting in favor of direct hardware access. Free memory is reduced by the size of the shadowed ROMs. Several new types of non-volatile RAM , which preserve data while powered down, are under development. The technologies used include carbon nanotubes and approaches utilizing Tunnel magnetoresistance. There are two 2nd generation techniques currently in development: thermal-assisted switching TAS [28] which is being developed by Crocus Technology , and spin-transfer torque STT on which Crocus , Hynix , IBM , and several other companies are working.

Whether some of these technologies can eventually take significant market share from either DRAM, SRAM, or flash-memory technology, however, remains to be seen. Since , " solid-state drives " based on flash memory with capacities exceeding gigabytes and performance far exceeding traditional disks have become available.

This development has started to blur the definition between traditional random-access memory and "disks", dramatically reducing the difference in performance. Some kinds of random-access memory, such as " EcoRAM ", are specifically designed for server farms , where low power consumption is more important than speed. An important reason for this disparity is the limited communication bandwidth beyond chip boundaries, which is also referred to as bandwidth wall.

Given these trends, it was expected that memory latency would become an overwhelming bottleneck in computer performance. CPU speed improvements slowed significantly partly due to major physical barriers and partly because current CPU designs have already hit the memory wall in some sense. Intel summarized these causes in a document. First of all, as chip geometries shrink and clock frequencies rise, the transistor leakage current increases, leading to excess power consumption and heat Secondly, the advantages of higher clock speeds are in part negated by memory latency, since memory access times have not been able to keep pace with increasing clock frequencies.

Third, for certain applications, traditional serial architectures are becoming less efficient as processors get faster due to the so-called Von Neumann bottleneck , further undercutting any gains that frequency increases might otherwise buy. In addition, partly due to limitations in the means of producing inductance within solid state devices, resistance-capacitance RC delays in signal transmission are growing as feature sizes shrink, imposing an additional bottleneck that frequency increases don't address.

A different concept is the processor-memory performance gap, which can be addressed by 3D integrated circuits that reduce the distance between the logic and memory aspects that are further apart in a 2D chip. Multiple levels of caching have been developed to deal with the widening gap, and the performance of high-speed modern computers relies on evolving caching techniques. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Form of computer data storage. For other uses, see Ram. Not to be confused with Random Access Memories or Random-access machine.

Analog recording. In development. Main article: Memory cell computing. Main article: Memory hierarchy. Main article: Virtual memory. Main article: RAM drive. Part of this section is transcluded from Synchronous dynamic random-access memory. Technology portal. Cambridge English Dictionary. Retrieved 11 July Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary. Ars Technica. Archived from the original on July 8, Archived from the original on Reprinted in The Origins of Digital Computers.

IEE , 98 61 : 13—28, doi : Computer History Museum. Retrieved 19 June The Silicon Engine. Horizon House. Retrieved 10 August Retrieved 20 September Old Calculator Web Museum. Archived from the original on 3 July Retrieved 8 May Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 8 July History of Semiconductor Engineering. ISBN Electronic Design. Hayden Publishing Company. The first commercial synchronous DRAM, the Samsung Mbit KM48SL, employs a single-bank architecture that lets system designers easily transition from asynchronous to synchronous systems.

August Samsung Electronics. Retrieved 23 June Retrieved Archived from the original PDF on Archived PDF from the original on March 2, Archived PDF from the original on April 27, Vancouver, BC. Retrieved 14 July Nanoelectronics and Information Technology. Archived from the original on August 1, Retrieved March 31, Multiprocessor Systems-on-chips.

Morgan Kaufmann. Ribeiro and Simone L. Martins Proceedings of the IEEE. ISSN Semiconductor History Museum of Japan. Retrieved 27 June The products are sorted by date" PDF. Intel museum. Intel Corporation. July Archived from the original PDF on August 9, Retrieved July 31, Intel Vintage.

Retrieved 5 July Retrieved 25 June October S2CID Digest of Technical Papers. XXVI : 58— December Bibcode : ITED Smithsonian Institution. SK Hynix. Retrieved 6 July Retrieved 26 June Massachusetts Institute of Technology. National Museum of American History. Retrieved 20 June March Computer Hope. Japanese Technical Abstracts. University Microfilms. PMID Texas Instruments.

Retrieved 21 June Retrieved 29 June NEC Electronics.

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